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발간자료 The Naturalization of Violent Extremists 인남식 아중동연구부장대리 작성일 2021-03-30 조회수 938
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I.  Introduction
Ⅱ. Background: Civil War of Syria
Ⅲ. The Emergence of HTS : A brief history
Ⅳ. Organization of HTS 
Ⅴ. Ideology, Goals, and Strategies 
Ⅵ. Internal and External Dynamics 
Ⅶ. Conclusion  



I.  Introduction

One of the most important topics in international politics of the 21st century is violent extremism. Violent extremism manifests itself in a very different way from international conflicts caused by far-right nationalist fascism or communist ideology. This is because the rise of non-state actors and the inadequate response from the international community lead to extreme confusion. There were frequent occurrences of conflicts that were different from the usual conflicts that ultimately developed into conventional wars. This should be viewed as a new inflection point in international politics. 

In the traditional study of international politics, especially in realpolitik theories, state actors were the main subject of analysis. When the theory of East-West blocs disappeared with the Cold War, the US became the only dominant power in the world. The US continued to be the sole superpower, unrivaled by any other state. Although states are still the unit of analysis, there was a now a super-state that could control all other states. The US dominance, however, came to a stop. Ten years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, precisely on September 11, 2001, a new fault line was drawn. The leading power that threatened the US was not a state. A new variable for conflict had emerged: violent extremism, and in particular, the variable that used the “clash of civilizations” theory as their tool. 

After the 9.11 terrorist attacks in 2001, the US declared a war on terror. The target was al-Qaeda with Osama bin Laden as its leader. The new US foreign strategy based on the Bush doctrine led to the war in Afghanistan followed by the war in Iraq. The US, which fought the far-right nationalist fascists in World War II and led the war against the Soviets during the Cold War, now had begun a war against religious extremism rather than a nationalist ideology or communist ideology. 


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